AAHKS: American Association of Hip and Knee Surgeons
AAOS: American Association of Orthopaedic Surgeons
ABMS: American Board of Medical Specialties
ABOS: American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery
ACA: Affordable Care Act
ACO: Accountable Care Organizations
AHA: American Hospital Association
AJRR: American Joint Replacement Registry
AMA: American Medical Association
APM: Alternative Payment Model
CAHPS: Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems Survey
CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
CJR: Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement model         
CJRR: California Joint Replacement Registry
CMS: Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services

DHHS:  Department of Health and Human Services

eCQM: Electronic Clinical Quality Measures
EHR: Electronic Health Record
EMR: Electronic Medical Record
EP: Eligible Professional as in a medical professional, doctor, surgeon
FDA: U.S. Food and Drug Administration
GPRO: Group Practice Reporting Option
HIPAA: Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act
ICOR: International Consortium of Orthopaedic Registries
IRB: Institutional Review Board
ISAR: International Society of Arthroplasty Registers
JBJS: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery
MACRA: Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act
MDEpiNet: Medical Device Epidemiology Network Initiative
MIPS: Merit-Based Incentive Payment System
MOC: Maintenance of Certification (from the ABOS)
MU: Meaningful Use of Electronic Medical Records CMS
NCQA: National Committee on Quality Assurance
NQF: National Quality Forum
NQRN: National Quality Registry Network
NQS: National Quality Strategy
NsQIP: National Surgical Quality Improvement Program
OCSQ: Office of Clinical Standards and Quality
OHRP: Office for Human Research Protections (HHS)
ONC: Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology
PCPI: Physician Consortium for Performance Improvement
PFS: Medicare Physician Fee Schedule
PHI: Protected Health Information
PQRS: Physician Quality Reporting System – CMS Program
PROMs: Patient Reported Outcome Measures
PSQIA: Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act
QCDR: Qualified Clinical Data Registry
SGR: Sustainable Growth Rate: control spending by Medicare on physician services
THA: Total Hip Arthroplasty
THR: Total Hip Replacement
TJC: The Joint Commission
TJR: Total Joint Replacement
TKA: Total Knee Arthroplasty
TKR: Total Knee Replacement
UDI: Unique Device Identifier
VM: Value Based Modifier – CMS Program
WIRB: Western Institutional Review Board